Ask Martha:Enliven your life, and recipes, with spices

MARTHA STEWART
Syndicated Columnist
Published Thursday, September 23, 1999

Martha Stewart

Did you know that if it weren't for spices, you might not live where you do today? Much of the exploration of the world, including the discovery of North America, can be linked to the world's passion for spices. In 11th-century Venice, pepper was valued as highly as gold. Later, explorers Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan raced to find faster and more direct spice trade routes, and discovered new worlds in the process.

Spices are seasonings derived from the seeds, stems, pods, berries, bark, roots, buds or fruits of plants. Herbs, on the other hand, are the leaves of plants. Spices have been prized throughout history for uses ranging from preserving food, making perfume and practicing religious rituals.

Certain spices are thought to have medicinal qualities, soothing the stomach or clearing a stuffy head. And when it comes to cooking, they enliven, enhance and add depth of flavor to almost any dish.

Buying, storing and using spices

Most spices are sold dried, either whole or in powder form. Whole spices such as cumin seeds will give you the best flavor, but you'll need to grind them before use. Whole nutmeg or cinnamon can be grated with a fine, handheld grater. Peppercorns and allspice berries can be ground in a pepper mill. Small seeds can either be pulverized with a mortar and pestle, or ground to a fine powder in a coffee grinder.

To clean your grinder and eliminate residue between uses, run some soft, fresh bread through it. The bread will sweep away tiny spice remnants and absorb odors. Be aware, however, that even after a thorough cleaning spice flavors can linger. Consider designating a separate grinder for your spices unless you like to taste them in your morning coffee.

If your recipe calls for spices to be toasted before grinding, heat them for a few minutes _ until they become aromatic _ in a hot, dry skillet. Shake the pan often to keep the spices from scorching.

Properly stored in airtight containers and away from heat and light, spices have a shelf life of six months to a year. After that, their flavor deteriorates quickly. For that reason, it's best not to buy them in large quantities.

It's easy to add variety to your cooking with spice blends. Sample some traditional blends, such as curry powder, then experiment by creating your own mixtures. You can sprinkle them on fish before grilling, use as a rub for chicken, or add a pinch or two to a stock or sauce.

Jars of your special spice blends also make wonderful hostess gifts. Make sure to include a recipe or two. If you come up with a great blend, why not share it with others on our cooking bulletin boards? You'll find them on www.marthastewart.com.

Spice glossary

The following is not a comprehensive list of the world's spices, but an overview of many of the most common.

Allspice. This dried berry has a fragrance similar to that of nutmeg or clove.

Cardamom. A warm, aromatic member of the ginger family, cardamom is sold either ground or in seed pods. It is native to India and Central America.

Cinnamon. This familiar holiday spice is actually pale to reddish brown tree bark, stripped and rolled into sticks.

Clove. The dried, unopened buds of the myrtle flower are sold whole, in nails or ground.

Coriander. The seed of the cilantro plant (also called Chinese parsley) has a sweet, lemon-sage flavor.

Cumin. This pale-brown, nutty-flavored seed is an important ingredient in chile powder. Available whole or ground.

Fennel Seed. This sweet seed of the common fennel plant provides the distinct flavor of Italian sweet sausage.

Ginger. A knobby, pungent root that can be purchased fresh or dried, whole, powdered or candied.

Mace. The reddish, lacy covering of a nutmeg husk, mace is similar in flavor to nutmeg. Sold powdered or in blades.

Nutmeg. The spicy-sweet seed of the nutmeg tree, this tropical evergreen native to the West Indies is usually sold ground, but it is well worth seeking out whole seeds and grating them yourself for better flavor.

Paprika. This blend of dried, powdered red chiles can be hot or sweet.

Pepper. Peppercorns, the processed berries of the pepper plant, are either white, black or green, depending on ripeness. Pinkpeppercorns are the dried berries of the Baies rose plant.

Saffron. The dried stigmas of the crocus flower are the most expensive of all spices.

Star Anise. This eight-pointed, dark-brown fruit pod, native to China, is often called for in Asian cooking.

Turmeric. A root with a bright orange-yellow color and sharp flavor. Turmeric is related to ginger and native to India.

Recipes

Chinese Five Spice Powder

(Makes 1/4 cup)

This is probably the most popular of Chinese spice blends. Ginger, licorice root, or cardamom are sometimes added to the five basic ingredients.

2 tablespoons whole star anise (about 10)

1 tablespoon Szechuan peppercorns

1 stick cinnamon

2 tablespoons fennel seeds

1/2 teaspoon whole cloves

1. Place all seeds together in a saut pan over medium heat and dry-roast. Shaking pan often, until the spices give off an aroma. About two to five minutes.

2. Combine all ingredients in a mortar or a clean coffee grinder

and grind to a powder. Store in an airtight container.

(Prep and cooking time: 10 minutes.)

Garam Marsala

(Makes 1/4 cup)

Popular in the colder climates of northern India, garam masala (garam is the Indian word for warmth) is used when a dish needs a bit of extra heat. It is generally added to food at the very end of cooking.

1 teaspoon coriander seeds

1 1/2 teaspoons cumin seeds

1 teaspoon cardamom seeds

2 cinnamon sticks

2 bay leaves

1 1/2 teaspoons peppercorns

1/2 teaspoon whole cloves

1 teaspoon ground mace

Follow steps 1 and 2, above.

(Prep and cooking time: 10 minutes.)

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